candle regulation and testing

Candle regulation and testing

Candles have similar laws and regulations and tests in different markets, which are aimed at reducing the risk of fire when burning. Here we mainly talk about the situation of American and European markets.

In the European Union (EU), candles are regulated by the European Commission and must meet specific safety requirements outlined in the General Product Safety Regulations(GPSR). Additionally, the EU has set specific testing standards for candles based on EN 15493, EN 15494, EN 15426. It is important to remember that these three candle standards are voluntary and not required by law. But this is based on your product meeting the requirements of GPSR and CLP.

EN15493: Fire Safety

Aims to reduce the fire risk when candles burn indoors by evaluating the stability and burning performance. The specific items to be tested are as follows (different candles will be slightly different):

  • Stability test: candles shall not tip over when tested on a slope of 10 °.
  • Secondary ignition: No secondary ignition shall occur for more than 10 s.
  • Flame height: shall not exceed 75 mm.
  • Behavior by self-extinguishing at the end of the burning process: at the end of the burning, it shall extinguish itself without causing the container to break.
  • Re-ignition after extinguishing: after being extinguished, the wick should not continue to glow or smoke for more than 20 seconds, and should not be re-ignition.

EN15494: Safety Labels

To raise people’s vigilance in the process of using candles through appropriate warnings to ensure personal safety. Different candles have different requirements for safety labels.

candle warning label
  • Safety labels and information shall be: in the form of symbols or text – the label on the package or product (or the instruction sheet available at the point of sale) shall be clearly visible and readable.
  • The layout of safety label consists of the following components:
    • general warning sign, mandatory for all candles.
    • mandatory supplementary safety information symbols or texts, mandatory for all candles.
    • optional supplementary safety information symbols or texts,  optional, based on the risk assessment for candles.

EN15426: Sooting Behaviors

Ensure that the soot released during the burning of indoor candles is maintained at an appropriate level, which is intended to ensure personal safety, so as to improve human health.

The standard as follow: the average Si (the average number of three test samples) < 1.0/hour, and the single test sample shall not exceed 2.0/hour.

In the USA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is responsible for enforcing federal regulations related to product safety, including candles. The CPSC has issued guidelines for candle manufacturers to follow, but these guidelines are not legally binding.

However, some states have also enacted specific laws and regulations related to candle safety. For instance, California has a state law (California State Fire Marshal Regulation 5108) that requires certain labeling and warning requirements for candles sold in the state.

In general, the testing standard of candles in the USA are as follows:

ASTM F2417: Fire Safety

Specify the minimum safety requirements for candles and candle combinations to ensure a reasonable degree of safety.

  • Flame Height: shall not exceed 76mm.
  • Candle Container Integrity: the container shall not crack or break.
  • Secondary Ignition: shall not occur.
  • Flame Impingement: shall not impinge on the supporting surface.
  • Stability: shall not tip over when tested on a slope of 10 °.
  • Plastic Containers: the single burning time of plastic containers shall not exceed 30 seconds.
  • Coatings on Candles:  flame heights shall not exceed 76mm, secondary ignition shall not occur.

ASTM F2058: Safety Labeling

Helps to ensure that consumers are informed about the safe use of candles to help prevent fires.

  • The fire safety warning must be placed on the sales unit and visible to consumers at the point of sale.
  • The text-only fire safety warning shall consist of the safety alert symbol.
  • The text-and-pictogram fire safety warning shall consist of the safety alert symbol

ASTM F2601: Fire Safety for Candle Accessories

To measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions.

  • Flammability: the burn time for any one test shall not exceed 60 s.
  • Tealight and Taper Candle Holders
  • Candle Burners Performance: no secondary ignition,  flame height not exceed 7.6cm, the holder not catch on fire, the holder no break or crack.
  • Stability: The accessory shall not tip over when placed at a minimum 10.0° (–0.0° / +0.5°) incline.

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